NINA BAI-STANFORD, ‘FAST HEART RATES CAN DRIVE ANXIETY, NOT JUST VICE VERSA’, https://www.futurity.org/heart-rates-anxiety-emotion-2886082-2/, Futurity, University of Rochester (MARCH 8TH, 2023)
A faster heart rate can generate anxiety. (…) When researchers artificially boosted an animal’s heart rate (the number of times a heart beats each minute), it behaved more cautiously in risky situations. (…) The findings address a question that has intrigued philosophers and scientists for more than a century: whether bodily sensations follow emotion, or the other way around. In 1884, the philosopher and early psychologist William James argued that, contrary to common belief, our emotional reaction to a situation comes after our physical reactions. (…) He described basically a three-step process: First the brain perceives the situation, then the body engages in an appropriate response, and only then the organism feels the full emotion. (…) We feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble.
Karl Deisseroth, Stanford University